This site is dedicated to bringing together research from both sides of the Pacific about the Emishi people. The focus is on interpreting the research, and to remember the Emishi as a vital and important group whose people, though long gone, have changed the Japanese population, and whose influence on its history has been central. I was born in
Sendaiin the northeastern part of Honshuwhere the Emishi had lived. My imagination was captured as a young man in 1984 when my mother and I took a train from out to Taga to view the remains of the castle there. As I walked around the site where the castle once stood there was a heavy summer rainstorm as I imagined the Emishi attacking the Japanese garrison stationed there many centuries ago. The Emishi were defending their land against the Japanese. Sendai
I was struck by the mirror reverse image to the
, because the people who were conquered by the Japanese, and whose culture was almost extinguished, the Emishi and Ezo of Honshu were people who resembled Caucasians. This was reverse of the American experience where descendants of an Asian group of Paleolithic hunters, the Native Americans, were systematically exploited and destroyed by Caucasian settlers from United States Europe. As we shall see in the following pages this is a superficial resemblance, yet, even 19th century Europeans were startled to find people who looked so different from the surrounding East Asian population in the far northern corner of . Japan 's population is not homogeneous now and was less so in the past. Japan
On March 11, 2011 a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the coast of the Tohoku, and the subsequent tsunami triggered by the earthquake was one of the most devastating natural disasters to hit
in some time. This is the same area where many Emishi had lived in the distant past. Ironically, the only comparable event to this was another earthquake and tsunami that occurred almost in the exact same location in AD 869, some one-thousand, one-hundred and forty years ago when the Emishi were still living in the area. The earthquake known as the Jougan Earthquake (occurring during Emperor Jougan's reign) was followed by a tsunami that swept through the same areas as in 2011. Japan , and the town that had developed around it during and after the Tohoku Wars was affected then as it was in 2011 with much loss of life. Taga Castle
In the battle near the town of Subuse (in Iwate prefecture) fought in AD 789, the main force of eight-hundred Emishi attacked the Japanese army of two-thousand soldiers that were making their way up the east side of the Kitakami river. They were pursuing another Emishi force that had earlier attacked them in the front and lead them into a trap. The main Emishi force proceeded to attack the Japanese army in the rear and east sides pinning them against the river. The earlier force who lead them into the trap were reinforced and attacked them in the front. They were surrounded. Panic turned to rout as they cast off their weapons and took off their armor in an attempt to escape across the Kitakami river. Most of the deaths were due to drowning. The Emishi army was made up of bands of horsemen who used bows to attack them from a distance, and then used swords in close hand-to-hand combat after softening them up. (1)
This website started out on the excellent site by Suzuta Yukinori, Conquest of Emishi . Suzuta Yukinori's site is indispensable for the detailed description of the military campaign the ancient Japanese state waged against the Emishi. Unfortunately, Yukinori's original site is no longer available, so I have created a mirror of his site here (updated 2014.4.12).
1. Who Were the Emishi? My primary aim is to seek to place the Emishi people in the broader framework of early Japanese history. The interest in early Japan has been hightened by recent discoveries that a related people to the Emishi (and the Jomon) most likely made their way across the Bering Sea land bridge during the height of the Ice Age creating controversies even on this side of the Pacific in the form of Kennewick Man (revised 2014.3.9).
2. Jomon Culture and the Emishi:
The connection between the Latest Jomon and Epi-Jomon cultures and the Emishi is an extremely important link that connects the historical period to the culture that came before (revised 2007.12.1).
3. The Emishi, Kofun Culture and the Expansion of Yamato: The Kofun culture in the Tohoku is examined along with the Emishi people. Both agriculture and the development of centralized states took place in the Tohoku before the Yamato conquest of the Emishi (revised 2012.4.19).
4. The Moving Frontier: From Emishi to Ezo: The clash between Yamato and the Northern cultures of Northeast Asia took place in
B. Regional Jomon
5. The Treatment of Natives in the Nihon Shoki: the case of western Japan: Before the Tohoku Emishi were conquered there were the Jomon peoples of western
who were known collectively as Tsuchigumo. They were not just mistreated but were destroyed by the Japanese. If we can accept the accuracy of the records their treatment starkly differs from how the Emishi were treated (revised 2009.1.1). Japan
6. The early Yamato state and the eastern Emishi:
The Japanese expansion into the Kanto and eastern
7. Evidence of Epi-Jomon Migration and Lifestyle:
Evidence is mounting that the Epi-Jomon culture in
8. Origins of the Jomon: Possible linkage between the ancient Jomon of Japan and the Australian Aborigines (edited 2009.9.13, illustration 2014.3.8.).
9. Jomon ancestry in the Tohoku: initial DNA studies:
Though the numbers are small, an initial DNA study of the Tohoku confirms the Jomon nature of the original inhabitants (2013.12.20).
C. Tohoku burial site population: Yoko-ana bogun
10. Population of the Sendai Plain: the Yamoto burials: New information from the Yamoto yoko-ana burial site gives a snapshot of the population of one area of the
11. Tohoku Kofun Population: sixth through eighth centuries AD:
A new comprehensive study of skeletal remains from the Kofun society of the Tohoku during the centuries of Emishi resistance in the frontier areas (2013.11.15).
12. Yamoto Tunnel Burials revisited:
An update on the Yamoto yoko-ana bogun. Is this the first confirmed evidence of the Emishi people? (2012.8.31).
D. Aspects of Emishi people and society
13. Ezo ana kofun and Emishi Society: The tombs of the Emishi known as ezo ana kofun tells us some important information about Emishi society (revised 2012.9.27).
14. Hitakami and the Emishi Horse Archers: The central aspect of Emishi culture was the horse archer, and most scholars of Japan see this culture as both a challenge to the early Japanese state, and in influencing its transformation through the warrior culture. A major scholar of Tohoku history Takahashi Tomio looks at this culture and why it did not continue among the later Ainu (revised 2009.10.25).
15. Emishi Fushu and Ifu: Here I will look at two differing perspectives regarding the Emishi allies, the fushu and ifu (revised 2013.1.19).
16. Evidence of Emishi Arms, Armor and Clothing: An important aspect of Emishi culture that is not easy to verify (revised 2014.4.9).
17. The Emishi and Physical Anthropology: Latest findings suggest that much of eastern
18. Emishi become Ainu or Japanese in the Medieval period: Connecting the Emishi to the Ainu has often been mired by downplaying the power and success of the latter (revised 2007.12.20).
19. Emishi Culture and Identity: It is important to talk about the Emishi ethnic and cultural affiliation unlike what some Japanese scholars would assert. Cultural differences identified whether one belonged to the Japanese or Emishi, or the Japanese or Ainu later in history. Sometimes these boundaries were crossed over with unexpected results (revised 2010.10.14).
Appendix A: Contemporary Illustrations of Emishi: Rare illustrations from some of the oldest sources (revised 2007.12.29).
Appendix B: Diagrams and Sources: Two perspectives on the Emishi (revised 2012.9.12)
Appendix C: Kanji Terms and Interpretation (2007.3.15)
Field Museum of Natural History: Ainu Origins：This site is possibly the best for understanding this time period, and has excellent maps that I will link to in my pages where relevant. In particular it outlines the emergence of the Satsumon culture in
Hokkaido, the northernmost island in Japan, about the same time that wars between the Yamato Japanese and the Emishi people were occurring in the Tohoku or northeastern Honshu, the main . islandof Japan
Islands of the Spirit: One of the best informational sites put out by PBS's Nova program that links the Ainu with the Jomon.
First Americans from National Geographic: The newest evidence recently uncovered (from 2007) suggest that the first Americans may have had a genetic relationship with the Jomon.
The Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People: One of the best overall sites about the Ainu. The multimedia presentation is perhaps one of the best on the web, and the research that went into the site is second to none.
References and footnotes:
1. Sasama Yoshihiko. Nihon no Bugu Kachiu jiten. (Tokyo: Tsukasa sei-han, 1981). Drawings of ancient armor by the author on this website are for the most part modeled on this work, though any discrepancies of interpretation (as these are applied to the Emishi) are of course my own. The Emishi are depicted with riding boots widespread among continental and
About the Author and disclaimer: I worked on a Phd. program at the
Last revision: 2014.4.9 (Evidence of Emishi Arms, Armor and Clothing; Conquest of Emishi: revised illustrations) Kenjiro Hakomori